Human Resource Practices and Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Work Engagement and Training Sessions


  • Muhammad Amir M.Com (Hons), Department of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan
  • Kamran Ali Lecturer,University of the Punjab, Gujranwala Campus
  • Dilshad Ali M.Com Scholar,University of the Punjab, Gujranwala Campus
  • Alina Zulfiqar Ali M.Phil Scholar,Hailey college of Commerce, PU, Lahore



HR practices, Work Engagement, Training Sessions, Human Capital, employee performance


The current study is an empirical evaluation of Human Resource (HR) practices on employee Performance within Pakistani organisations via the mediating role of work engagement and training sessions as they are conducted to enhance their performance in line with human capital theory. For the research, data was collected from 259 employees and HR managers from Pakistan manufacturing and service sector through self administered questionnaire. Moreover, two statistical software, SPSS and AMOS, have been employed for data analysis. The results have depicted a positive association between HR practices and the performance of employees. In addition, the study has revealed that work engagement and training sessions significantly mediate HR practices and employee performance. The study also emphasises manager development and gives credence to the implementation of HR practices which boost employee working passion. Consequently, these practices prove the instrumentality of training sessions in organisations. Employee productivity is improved through training sessions as well as work engagements. This research model is mainly the first to be studied within Pakistan with mediating role of training sessions and work engagements, keeping human capital theory at the centre.


Download data is not yet available.


Aboramadan, M et al. (2020). “Human resources management practices and organisational commitment in higher education”. International Journal of Educational Management 34(1), pp. 154–174.

Adelere, M A (2017). “Effect of staff training and development on organisational performance: Evidence from Nigerian bottling company. ” Oman Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 6, pp. 10–24.

Adil, M S and F Qaiser (2020). “Effect of Leader-Member Exchange Relationship on Occupational Stress in the Energy Sector of Pakistan: A Mediating Role of Job Involvement”. Journal of Management Sciences, Geist Science 7(1), pp. 64–87.

Afsar, B et al. (2020). “Cultural intelligence and innovative work behavior: the role of work engagement and interpersonal trust”. European Journal of Innovation Management 24(4), pp. 1082–1109.

Ahmad, M et al. (2019). “Converging HRM practices? A comparison of high performance work system practices in MNC subsidiaries and domestic firms in Pakistan”. Employee Relations: The International Journal 41(5), pp. 931–948.

Ahmed, U et al. (2020). “Modelling the link between developmental human resource practices and work engagement: The moderation role of service climate”. Global Business Review 21(1), pp. 31–53.

Akhtar, A et al. (2016). “Impact of high performance work practices on employees’ performance in Pakistan: Mediating role of employee engagement”. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS) 10(3), pp. 708–724.

Ali, A (2019). “Impact of HR Policies and Practices on Employee Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Pakistan Telecommunication Ltd.(PTCL) Hyderabad, Pakistan.” SEISENSE Journal of Management 2(2), pp. 48–57.

Ali, H, F Hussain, and A Khan (2020). “The Mediating Role of Organizational Identification between Leadership and Job Security: A case of Teachers in Private institutions of Punjab-Pakistan. ” Journal of Management and Research 7(1), pp. 212–234.

Amir, M, S A Rehman, and M I Khan (2020). “Mediating role of environmental management accounting and control system between top management commitment and environmental performance: A legitimacy theory.” Journal of Management and Research 7(1), pp. 132–160.

Anwar, G and N N Abdullah (2021). “The impact of Human resource management practice on Organisational performance”. International journal of Engineering 5(1), pp. 35–47.

Bakker, A B, S L Albrecht, and M P Leiter (2011). “Key questions regarding work engagement”. European journal of work and organisational psychology 20(1), pp. 4–28.

Basheer, M et al. (2019). “Exploring the role of TQM and supply chain practices for firm supply performance in the presence of information technology capabilities and supply chain technology adoption: A case of textile firms in Pakistan”. Uncertain Supply Chain Management 7(2), pp. 275–288.

Bell, E, A Bryman, and B Harley (2018). Business research methods. Oxford university press.

Boon, C and K Kalshoven (2014). “How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment: The moderating role of task proficiency”. Human Resource Management 53(3), pp. 403–420.

Chaudhry, N. I., Asad, H., & Hussain, R. I. (2020). Environmental innovation and financial performance: Mediating role of environmental management accounting and firm’s environmental strategy. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 14(3), 715–737.

De Clercq, D et al. (2021). “Perceived organisational injustice and counterproductive work behaviours: mediated by organisational identification, moderated by discretionary human resource practices”. Personnel Review 50(7), pp. 1545–1565.

Al-Dmour, H, O Yassine, and R Al-Dmour (2019). “The Impact of Employee Empowerment upon Sales Workforce Performance via the Mediating Role of Work Engagement in the Five Stars Hotels: Empirical Study”. Journal of International Business and Management 2(2), pp. 1–22.

Elnaga, A and A Imran (2013). “The effect of training on employee performance”. European Journal of Business and Management 5(4), pp. 137–147.

Elsawy, M (2022). “The Effect of Sustainable Human Resource Management on Achieving Sustainable Employee Performance: An Empirical Study”. International Business Research 15(5), pp. 1–12.

Guan, X and S Frenkel (2018). “How HR practice, work engagement and job crafting influence employee performance”. Chinese Management Studies 12(3), pp. 591–607.

Gürlek, M and A Uygur (2021). “Service-oriented high-performance human resource practices and employee service performance: A test of serial mediation and moderation models”. Journal of Management & Organization 27(1), pp. 197–233.

Hamadamin, H H and T Atan (2019). “The impact of strategic human resource management practices on competitive advantage sustainability: The mediation of human capital development and employee commitment”. Sustainability 11(20).

Hashim, M et al. (2017). “Impact of human resource practices on perceived performance: A study of teaching faculty in private universities of Peshawar”. Pakistan. City University Research Journal, Special Issue AIC, pp. 120–129.

Hassan, S (2016). “Impact of HRM practices on employee’s performance”. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting 6(1), pp. 15–22.

Hulland, J (1999). “Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies”. Strategic management journal 20(2), pp. 195–204.

Iqbal, S and M S Hashmi (2015). “Impact of perceived organisational support on employee retention with mediating role of psychological empowerment”. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS) 9(1), pp. 18–34.

Iyer, E S and R K Kashyap (2009). “Noneconomic goals of investors”. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review 8(5), pp. 225–237.

Jabbar, M et al. (2020). “Effect of Administrative Practices on Job Performance: An Empirical Study among Public University Employees in Pakistan”. Global Academic Journal of Economics and Business 1(1), pp. 1–4.

Jabeen, R and N Rahim (2020). “Mediating Role of Perception of Job Insecurity on the Relationship between Despotic Leadership and Work Engagement: Pakistani Perspective”. Review of Economics and Development Studies 6(2), pp. 277–288.

Jaff, M R et al. (2011). “Management of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism, iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a scientific statement from the”. American Heart Association. Circulation 123(16), pp. 1788–1830.

Jarrar, A S (2022). “Strategic Human Resource Practices and Employee’s Engagement: Evidence from Jordanian Commercial Banks”. European Journal of Business and Management Research 7(1), pp. 66–72.

Jawaad, M et al. (2019). “Human resource practices and organisational commitment: The mediating role of job satisfaction in emerging economy”. Cogent Business & Management 6(1), p. 1608668.

Karim, M M, M M Choudhury, and W B Latif (2019). “The impact of Training and Development on Employees’ performance: An analysis of Quantitative Data”. Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research 3(2), pp. 25–33.

Khan, M A et al. (2019). “The mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship of HR practices and employee job performance: Empirical evidence from higher education sector”. International Journal of Organizational Leadership 8(1), pp. 78–94.

Khan, S et al. (2020). “Impact of HR practices on employee turnover and job satisfaction: Evidence from Pakistani Universities”. Review of Economics and Development Studies 6(3), pp. 607–624.

Khan, Z et al. (2019). “The role of HR practices in developing employee resilience: A case study from the Pakistani telecommunications sector”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 30(8), pp. 1342–1369.

Khushk, A A (2019). “Impact of Locus of Control (LOC) and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance-Study of Service Sector”. Pakistan. International Journal of Law and Peace Works 6(5), pp. 1–6.

Kline, R B (2011). “Convergence of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling”. The SAGE Handbook of Innovation in Social Research Methods.

Kooij, D T et al. (2013). How the impact of HR practices on employee well-being and performance changes with age.

Liao, H et al. (2009). “Do they see eye to eye? Management and employee perspectives of high-performance work systems and influence processes on service quality”. Journal of Applied Psychology 94(2), pp. 371–371.

Mahmood, A et al. (2019). “Specific HR practices and employee commitment: the mediating role of job satisfaction”. Employee Relations: The International Journal 41(3), pp. 420–435.

Manalo, R A, B De Castro, and C Uy (2020). “The mediating role of job satisfaction on the effect of motivation to organisational commitment and work engagement of private secondary high school teachers in Metro-Manila”. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research 9, pp. 133–159.

Mazzetti, G et al. (2019). “The hardier you are, the healthier you become. May hardiness and engagement explain the relationship between leadership and employees’ health?” Frontiers in psychology 9, pp. 1–9.

Mclachlan, J and J Gardner (2004). “A comparison of socially responsible and conventional investors”. Journal of Business Ethics 52(1), pp. 11–25.

Mira, M S et al. (2020). “The Impact of Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Performance through Job Satisfaction at Saudi Ports Authority based on the Assumption of Maslow Theory”. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 24(2), pp. 1–12.

Mira, M, Y Choong, and C Thim (2019). “The effect of HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction on employee performance”. Management Science Letters 9(6), pp. 771–786.

Mumtaz, A Memon et al. (2019). “Performance appraisal satisfaction and turnover intention: The mediating role of work engagement”. Management Decision 58(6), pp. 1053–1066.

Nadeem, S and M F S De Luque (2020). “Developing an understanding of the human resource (HR) complexities in Pakistan with a GLOBE cultural lens”. Journal of Management and Organization 26(4), pp. 483–501.

Paul, G D and D M H Kee (2020). “HR, Workplace Bullying, and Turnover Intention: The role of Work Engagement”. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques 8(1), pp. 23–27.

Rehman, S, R Mohamed, and H Ayoup (2019). “The mediating role of organisational capabilities between organisational performance and its determinants”. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research 9(1), pp. 1–23.

Rich, B L, J A Lepine, and E R Crawford (2010). “Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance”. Academy of management journal 53(3), pp. 617–635.

Rumman, A A, L Al-Abbadi, and R Alshawabkeh (2020). The impact of human resource development practices on employee engagement and performance in Jordanian family restaurants. Problems and Perspectives in Management.

Sabeen, H Bhatti et al. (2020). “High-performance work systems, innovation and knowledge sharing: An empirical analysis in the context of project-based organisations”. Employee Relations: The International Journal 43(2), pp. 438–458.

Salas-Vallina, A, J Alegre, and L López-Cabrales (2020). “The challenge of increasing employees’ well-being and performance: How human resource management practices and engaging leadership work together toward reaching this goal”. Human Resource Management 60(3), pp. 333–347.

Sheikh, A A et al. (2019). “The spiritual role of a leader in sustaining work engagement: A teacher-perceived paradigm”. Sage Open 9(3), pp. 1–15.

Swarnalatha, D C and Prasanna (2012). “Positive Organizational Behaviour: Engaged Employees in Flourishing Organisations”. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29(1), pp. 147–154.

Van Zyl, L E et al. (2019). “Work engagement and task performance within a global Dutch ICT-consulting firm: The mediating role of innovative work behaviors”. Current Psychology 40(1), pp. 4012–4023.

W Bari, M et al. (2019). “Soft issues during cross-border mergers and acquisitions and industry performance, China-Pakistan economic corridor based view”. Sage Open 9(2), pp. 1–16.

Wassem, M et al. (2019). “Impact of capacity building and managerial support on employees’ performance: The moderating role of employees’ retention”. Sage Open 9(3), pp. 1–13.

Yongxing, G et al. (2017). “Work engagement and job performance: the moderating role of perceived organisational support”. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology 33(3), pp. 708–713.

Yuswardi, Y (2020). “Effect of implementation of human resources practices to employees performance of logistic companies in batam”. Journal of Global Business and Management Review 2(1), pp. 49–59.




How to Cite

Amir , M., Ali, K., Ali, D., & Ali, A. Z. (2022). Human Resource Practices and Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Work Engagement and Training Sessions. JISR Management and Social Sciences & Economics, 20(1), 187–208.



Original Articles
Share |