Hijra— The Sex in Between


  • Anila Mithani SZABIST-Karachi
  • Fateh Muhammad Burfat SZABIST-Karachi




Hijra, human sex, Chhakka, Karachi, community


Nature has not been uniform in its creations, producing a spectrum of variances wherever possible. Some have wealth while others are poor, few have attractive physical features while others have ugly faces. Similarly there are variations in human sex resulting into possibilities that cannot be clearly partitioned into either of the sexes. It’s this intermediate sex that is the subject of this study - the people known as Hijra or Chhakka. The other names labeled to them by the society are Khadra, Khusra, Zanana, Murat, K-2, third-sex, or third world. The researcher has adopted a qualitative approach for the study and has conducted informal interviews with the respondents while referring to secondary data wherever required. The researcher contacted respondents belonging to various localities of Karachi, practicing various religions (Muslims, Christians). The researcher has avoided the use of the names of these respondents and refers to them simply as respondents. The aim of the study is to understand the different aspects of the life of these people, from their perspective. They usually live as a community. The research has been carried out with the hope of letting the society understand their differences, lifestyle and the reasons behind their peculiar way of living.


Download data is not yet available.


Parker A. Leslie, “Ambiguous Genitalia: Etiology, Treatment, and Nursing Implications”, JOGNN Principles & Practice Volume 27,15-22, Jan/Feb 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.1998.tb02586.x

Iftikhar Ahmed Jan, an article on The third sex: myth or reality, Sunday Dawn magazine, February 3, 2002.

Dalrymple William, “City of Djinns – A Year in Delhi”, Flamingo An imprint of Harper Collins Publishers, pp. 169-183.

Nanda, Serena, Neither Man nor women, The Hijras of India, Wads Worth Publishing Company, Belmont California, 1990.

Junejo, Tanvir, “Eunuchs – The cultural heritage of Sindh”, Sindh University. Res. Journal (Arts Ser.) Vol. XXIX. 32-46, 1994.




How to Cite

Mithani, A., & Burfat, F. M. (2003). Hijra— The Sex in Between. JISR Management and Social Sciences & Economics, 1(1), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.31384/jisrmsse/2003.01.1.6



Original Articles