Role of Human Resource Practices in Knowledge Spillover: Study of Knowledge Hubs




training & development, phenomenology, human resource practices, participative leadership, knowledge spillovers


The aim of this study is to identify the significant role of HR practices in the knowledge spillover process that drives firm innovation and to ascertain doable HR- practices to accelerate this process. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were transcribed. For analysis, phenomenology is used as a research methodology to cater the essence of the phenomenon (knowledge spillover process) by studying HR-managers lived experiences. Findings validated through subjective saturated evidence of informants. The results based on data analysis revealed that frequent employee interactions, cooperative work environment and participative leadership are considered as the essence of knowledge spillovers. Another objective is fulfilled as Training and development and Employee relations are the two major HR practices that facilitate the knowledge spillover process effectively. This research benefits both academicians and practitioners. For educationist, it propounded a conceptual framework that supports in theory enhancement. For practitioners, effective implementation of HR practices can open new avenues of success for organizations.


Download data is not yet available.


Aghion, P., Akcigit, U., Bergeaud, A., Blundell, R., & Hémous, D. (2019). Innovation and top income inequality. The Review of Economic Studies, 86(1), 1–45.

Agrawal, O. P. (2002). Formulation of Euler-Lagrange equations for fractional variational problems. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 272(1), 180–184.

Akbar, W., Riaz, S., Arif, K., & Hayat, A. (2018). Measuring the non-financial rewards in escalating employees job satisfaction (a study of private companies in Pakistan). Asia Pacific Journal of Advanced Business and Social Studies, 4(1), 108–116.

Andreeva, T., & Kianto, A. (2012). Does knowledge management really matter? Linking knowledge management practices, competitiveness and economic performance. Journal of knowledge management, 16(4), 617–636.

Arrow, K. J. (1962). The economic implications of learning by doing. The review of economic studies, 29(3), 155–173.

Audretsch, D. B., Cunningham, J. A., Kuratko, D. F., Lehmann, E. E., & Menter, M. (2019). Entrepreneurial ecosystems: economic, technological, and societal impacts. The Journal of technology transfer, 44, 313–325.

Audretsch, D. B., & Feldman, M. P. (2004). Knowledge spillovers and the geography of innovation. Handbook of regional and urban economics, 4, 2713–2739.

Audretsch, D. B., Grilo, I., & Thurik, A. R. (2011). Globalization, entrepreneurship, and the region. In M. Fritsch (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of management, 17(1), 99–120.

Bawa, K. S., & Krugman, S. L. (1991). Reproductive biology and genetics of tropical trees in relation to conservation and management. In Gomez-Pompa et al. (Eds.), Rain Forest Regeneration and Management (Vol. 119). UK: Parthenon, Carnforth.

Braunerhjelm, P., Ding, D., & Thulin, P. (2018). The knowledge spillover theory of intrapreneurship. Small business economics, 51, 1–30.

Caiazza, R., Belitski, M., & Audretsch, D. B. (2020). From latent to emergent entrepreneurship: the knowledge spillover construction circle. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 45(3), 694–704.

Capron, I., Yvon, M., & Muller, G. (1996). In-vitro gastric stability of carrageenan. Food hydrocolloids, 10(2), 80040–80043.

Cassiman, B., Veugelers, R., & Arts, S. (2018). Mind the gap: Capturing value from basic research through combining mobile inventors and partnerships. Research Policy, 47(9), 1811–1824.

Caves, R. E. (1974). Multinational firms, competition, and productivity in host-country markets. Economica(162), 176–193.

Chan, T. M., Dzara, K., Dimeo, S. P., Bhalerao, A., & Maggio, L. A. (2020). Social media in knowledge translation and education for physicians and trainees: a scoping review. Perspectives on medical education, 9, 20–30.

Chen, Z. X., & Francesco, A. M. (2003). The relationship between the three components of commitment and employee performance in China. Journal of vocational behavior, 62(3), 64–71.

Cooke, F. L., Schuler, R., & Varma, A. (2020). Human resource management research and practice in Asia: Past, present and future. Human Resource Management Review, 30(4).

Couture, V. (2015). Knowledge spillovers in cities: An auction approach. Journal of Economic Theory, 157, 668–698.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Steps in conducting a scholarly mixed methods study. DBER Speaker Series, 48.

Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. (pp. 1–256). SAGE Publications Ltd.

Csuti, B., Polasky, S., Williams, P., Pressey, R. L., Camm, J. D., Kershaw, M., Kiester, A. R., Downs, B. W., Hamilton, R., Huso, M. M. P., & Sahr, K. (1997). A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon. Biological Conservation, 80(1), 68–75.

Dainty, A. R., Cheng, M. I., & Moore, D. R. (2005). Competency-based model for predicting construction project managers’ performance. Journal of Management in Engineering, 21(1), 2–9.

De Winne, S., & Sels, L. (2010). Interrelationships between human capital, HRM and innovation in Belgian start-ups aiming at an innovation strategy. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(11), 1863–1883.

De Zubielqui, G. C., Fryges, H., & Jones, J. (2019). Social media, open innovation & HRM: Implications for performance. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 144, 334–347.

De Zubielqui, G. C., Lindsay, N., Lindsay, W., & Jones, J. (2019). Knowledge quality, innovation and firm performance: a study of knowledge transfer in SMEs. Small Business Economics, 53(1), 145–164.

Eldridge, D., Nisar, T. M., & Torchia, M. (2021). What impact does equity crowdfunding have on SME innovation and growth? An empirical study. Small Business Economics, 56, 105–120.

Farnese, M. L., Barbieri, B., Chirumbolo, A., & Patriotta, G. (2019). Managing knowledge in organizations: A Nonaka’s SECI model operationalization. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 2730–2730.

Fawehinmi, O., Yusliza, M. Y., Ogbeibu, S., Tanveer, M. I., & Jabbour, C. J. (2022). Academic employees’ green behaviour as praxis for bolstering environmental sustainable development: A linear moderated mediation evaluation. Business Strategy and the Environment, 31(7), 3470–3490.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2005). Theory-based behavior change interventions: Comments on Hobbis and Sutton. Journal of health psychology, 10(1), 27–31.

Gehringer, A. (2022). Competent demand. Elgar Encyclopedia on the Economics of Knowledge and Innovation, 54–61.

Gill, S. L. (2020). Qualitative sampling methods. Journal of Human Lactation, 36(4), 579–581.

Glaeser, E. L., Kerr, W. R., & Ponzetto, G. A. (2010). Clusters of entrepreneurship. Journal of urban economics, 67(1), 150–168.

Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International journal of qualitative methods, 3(1), 42–55.

Hislop, D. (2003). Linking human resource management and knowledge management via commitment: A review and research agenda. Employee relations, 25(2), 182–202.

Hislop, H. (2012). The quality assurance of Irish schools and the role of evaluation: Current and future trends. . The professor seamas Ó súilleabháin memorial lecture. Retrieved from

Horwitz, F. M., Heng, C. T., & Quazi, H. A. (2003). Finders, keepers? Attracting, motivating and retaining knowledge workers. Human resource management journal, 13(4), 23–44.

Huselid, M. A., & Becker, B. E. (2011). Bridging micro and macro domains: Workforce differentiation and strategic human resource management. Journal of management, 37(2).

Ingram, P. (2017). Interorganizational Learning. (pp. 642–663). Blackwell Publishing Ltd eBooks.

Jacobs, T. O., & Human Resources Research Organization. (1970). Leadership and exchange in formal organizations. Retrieved from

Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of management Journal, 55(6), 1264–1294.

Jones, C. I. (2019). Paul Romer: Ideas, nonrivalry, and endogenous growth. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 121(3), 859–883.

Kamalaldin, A., Sjödin, D. R., Hullova, D., & Parida, V. (2021). Configuring ecosystem strategies for digitally enabled process innovation: A framework for equipment suppliers in the process industries. Technovation, 105.

Kang, Y., Siegel, P. H., Shu, W., Drobnjak, M., Kakonen, S. M., Cordón-Cardo, C., Guise, T. A., & Massagué, J. (2003). A multigenic program mediating breast cancer metastasis to bone. Cancer cell, 3(6), 537–549.

Kharabsheh, R., & Aqrabawi, A. (2013). Impact of knowledge management practices (KMPs) on competitive advantage in pharmaceutical firms. In European Conference on Knowledge Management (Vol. 1, pp. 349–355). ECKM.

Kim, N., Im, S., & Slater, S. F. (2013). Impact of knowledge type and strategic orientation on new product creativity and advantage in high-technology firms. Journal of product innovation management, 30(1), 136–153.

Kirsimarja, B., & Aino, K. (2019). Knowledge-based view of the firm–Theoretical notions and implications for management. Retrieved on, 23(2).

Lather, P. (1992). Critical frames in educational research: Feminist and post-structural perspectives. Theory into practice, 31(2), 87–99.

López-Cabarcos, M. A., Srinivasan, S., Göttling-Oliveira-Monteiro, S., & Vázquez-Rodríguez, P. (2019). Tacit knowledge and firm performance relationship. The role of product innovation and the firm level capabilities. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 20(2), 330–350.

Mansfield, E. (1988). Industrial R&D in Japan and the United States: A comparative study. The American Economic Review, 78(2), 223–228.

Marks, J., Dawa, S., & Kanyemba, S. (2020). Transnational entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa: An absorptive capacity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship perspective. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, 6(1).

Marrucci, L., Iannone, F., Daddi, T., & Iraldo, F. (2022). Antecedents of absorptive capacity in the development of circular economy business models of small and medium enterprises. Business Strategy and the Environment, 31(1), 532–544.

Marshall, A. (1890). The address of the president of section F–Economic Science and Statistics–of the British Association. at the Sixtiet Meeting, held at Leeds, 53, 612–643.

Marshall, B., Cardon, P., Poddar, A., & Fontenot, R. (2013). Does sample size matter in qualitative research?: A review of qualitative interviews in IS research. Journal of computer information systems, 54(1), 11–22.

Mckinnie, J. J., Bourgeois, R. J., & Husserl, F. E. (1985). Long-term therapy for heart failure with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Archives of internal medicine, 145(6).

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

Morse, J. M. (1995). The Significance of Saturation. Qualitative Health Research, 5(2), 147–149.

Ndabari, M. (2021). Knowledge management and performance: A conceptual review. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 3(9), 538–553.

Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). The Schumpeterian Tradeoff Revisited. The American Economic Review, 72(1), 114–132.

Neuman, W. L., & Robson, K. (2014). Basics of social research. Toronto: Pearson Canada.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press.

Park, G., Shin, S. R., & Choy, M. (2020). Early mover (dis) advantages and knowledge spillover effects on blockchain startups’ funding and innovation performance. Journal of Business Research, 109, 64–75.

Peet, R., & Robbins, P. (2010). Global political ecology (Watts & M., Eds.). Retrieved from

Peng, M. W. (2001). The resource-based view and international business. Journal of management, 27(6), 803–829.

Phene, A., Tallman, S., & Almeida, P. (2012). When do acquisitions facilitate technological exploration and exploitation. Journal of Management, 38(3), 753–783.

Pisano, G. P. (2015). A normative theory of dynamic capabilities: connecting strategy, knowhow, and competition. Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Working Paper, 16–36.

Quintas, D. J. (2011). How Significant. Built Environment, 14(3/4).

Robertson, M., & Hammersley, G. M. (2000). Knowledge management practices within a knowledge-intensive firm: the significance of the people management dimension. Journal of European industrial training, 24(2/3/4), 241–253.

Santoro, G., & Usai, A. (2018). Knowledge exploration and ICT knowledge exploitation through human resource management: A study of Italian firms. Management Research Review, 41(6), 701–715.

Scarborough, H., & Carter, C. (2001). Investigating Knowledge Management. Industrial and Commercial Training, 33(5), 178–186.

Scotland, J. (2012). Exploring the philosophical underpinnings of research: Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. English Language Teaching, 5(9).

Shrivastava, S., Pazzaglia, F., & Sonpar, K. (2021). The role of nature of knowledge and knowledge creating processes in knowledge hiding: Reframing knowledge hiding. Journal of Business Research, 136, 644–651.

Shujahat, M., Sousa, M. J., Hussain, S., Nawaz, F., Wang, M., & Umer, M. (2019). Translating the impact of knowledge management processes into knowledge-based innovation: The neglected and mediating role of knowledge-worker productivity. Journal of Business Research, 94, 442–450.

Song, F., Altman, D. G., Glenny, A. M., & Deeks, J. J. (2003). Validity of indirect comparison for estimating efficacy of competing interventions: empirical evidence from published meta-analyses. Bmj, 326(7387), 472–472.

Tallman, S., Jenkins, M., Henry, N., & Pinch, S. (2004). Knowledge, clusters, and competitive advantage. Academy of management review, 29(2), 258–271.

Teece, D. J. (2018). Business models and dynamic capabilities. Long range planning, 51(1), 40–49.

Trachuk, A., & Linder, N. (2019). Knowledge Spillover Effects: Impact of Export Learning Effects on Companies’ Innovative Activities. In IntechOpen eBooks.

Wang, C. C., Sung, H. Y., Chen, D. Z., & Huang, M. H. (2017). Strong ties and weak ties of the knowledge spillover network in the semiconductor industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 118, 114–127.

Wijngaarden, Y., Hitters, E., & Bhansing, P. V. (2020). Cultivating fertile learning grounds: Collegiality, tacit knowledge and innovation in creative co-working spaces. Geoforum, 109, 86–94.



How to Cite

Waheed, M. (2023). Role of Human Resource Practices in Knowledge Spillover: Study of Knowledge Hubs. JISR Management and Social Sciences & Economics, 21(2), 78–103.