Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) In Educational Settings: A Narrative Review
Keywords:OCB, Dimensions of OCB, organizational effectiveness, Educational performance, Leadership, Intellectual Capital
Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is a crucial foundation of every human organization. The main purpose of this review paper is to highlight the importance of the OCB in educational settings. Educational institutes have leaders, employees and resources (tangible and intangible). OCB dimensions, in particular: altruism, civic virtue, courtesy, consciousness and sportsmanship, have shown great significance in making associations between employees more powerful thereby improving group performance and influencing positive outcomes of the organization and improvements in school outcomes (as nonprofit service institutions) require the expression of OCB by their employees. Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) to stem negative behaviours and enhance positive workplace behaviours. Research has shown the benefits of critically examining the development of OCB in both school leadership and educators. This narrative review of the OCB construct focuses on the role, types, existence of, measurement of, and importance of OCB in educational settings. Implications for the next steps in the process are provided for policymakers, administrators, and teachers to promote OCB in their schools.
Ahmed, N O A (2016). “Impact of human resource management practices on organizational citizenship behavior: An empirical investigation from banking sector of Sudan”.International Review of Management and Marketing 6(4), pp. 964–973.
Aksel, I et al. (2013). “Assessment of teachers’ perceptions of organizational citizenship behaviors and psychological empowerment: an empirical analysis in Turkey”.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 89, pp. 69–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.811. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.811
Alwi, M et al. (2021). “The relationship between personality, attitude, and organizational citizenship behavior of senior high school teachers in Indonesia”. International Journal of Instruction 14(2), pp. 345–368. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14220a. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14220a
Arar, K and M Abu Nasra (2019). “Leadership style, occupational perception and organizational citizenship behavior in the Arab education system in Israel”. Journal of Educational Administration 57(1), pp. 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEA-08-2017-0094. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JEA-08-2017-0094
Argyris, C and D Schön (1978). “Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective”. In: New York: McGraw-Hill.
Barnard, C. I. (1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Bateman, T S and D W Organ (1983). “Job satisfaction and the good soldier: the relationship between affect and employee “citizenship””. Academy of Management Journal 26(4),pp. 587–595. https://doi.org/10.2307/255908. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/255908
Bergeron, D M et al. (2013). “Organizational citizenship behavior and career outcomes. The cost of being a good citizen”. Journal of Management 39(4), pp. 958–984. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311407508. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311407508
Bhasin, M L (2012). “Measurement and disclosure of intellectual capital in a developing country: An exploratory study”. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research 2(8), pp. 63–75. https://doi.org/10.52283/nswrca.ajbmr.20120208a08. DOI: https://doi.org/10.52283/NSWRCA.AJBMR.20120208A08
Bizri, R (2018). “Diversity management and OCB: the connection evidence from the Lebanese banking sector”. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 37(3), pp. 233–253. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-03-2017-0059. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-03-2017-0059
Bodla, A A et al. (2019). “Authoritarian leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational deviance: Curvilinear relationships”. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 40(5), pp. 583–599. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-08-2018-0313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-08-2018-0313
Bolino, M C et al. (2006). “The impact of impression-management tactics on supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behavior”. Journal of Organizational Behavior 27(3),pp. 281–297. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.379. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.379
Bostanci, A B (2013). “The prediction level of teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviors on the successful practice of shared leadership”. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 51, pp. 177–194. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1059935.
Burns, W and M F Dipaola (2013). “A study of organizational justice, organizational citizenship behavior, and student achievement in high schools”. American Secondary Education 42(1), pp. 4–23.
Campbell, J. W., & Im, T. (2016). PSM and Turnover Intention in Public Organizations:Does Change-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior Play a Role? Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(4), 323–369. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371X14567366 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371X14567366
Cohen, A and D Keren (2010). “Does climate matter? An examination of the relationship between organizational climate and OCB among Israeli teachers”. The Service Industries Journal 30(2), pp. 247–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060802120158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060802120158
Cohen, A and Y Kol (2004). “Professionalism and organizational citizenship behavior: An empirical examination among Israeli nurses”. Journal of Managerial Psychology 19(4), pp. 386–405. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940410537945. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940410537945
Dar, A and N Raja (2014). “Organizational citizenship and organizationaljustice in Pakistani schools”. Journal of Business and Managemnt (IOSR-JBM) 16(1), pp. 156–160. https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1614156160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1614156160
De Geus, P C J C et al. (2020). “Organizational citizenship behavior in the public sector: A systematic literature review and future research agenda”. Public Administration Review 80(2), pp. 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13141
Dick, B and T Dalmau (2000). Argyris and Schön: Some Elements of Their Models. Australia.
Dipaola, M, C Tarter, and W Hoy (2005). “Measuring organizational citizenship in schools: The OCB Scale”. Educational Leadership and Reform 4, pp. 319–341.
Dipaola, M and M Tschannen-Moran (2001). “Organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school climate”. Journal of School Leadership 11(5), pp. 424–447. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268460101100503. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/105268460101100503
Ertürk, A (2007). “Increasing organizational citizenship behaviors of Turkish academicians: mediating role of trust in supervisor on the relationship between organizational justice and citizenship behaviors”. Journal of Managerial Psychology 22(3), pp. 257–270. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733089. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733089
Fahmi, I and J Permana (2019). “Building Organizational citizenship Behavior (OCB) through Personality and Work Perception of Teachers”. In: 2nd International Conference on Research of Educational Administration and Management (ICREAM 2018). Atlantis Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/icream-18.2019.5
Fajar, A P and P D Soeling (2017). “The effect of HRM practices on employee organizational citizenship behavior in ICT companies”. In: 1st International Conference on Administrative Science, Policy and Governance Studies (ICAS-PGS 2017) and the 2nd International Conference on Business Administration and Policy (ICBAP 2017). Ed. by and others. Atlantis Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/icaspgs-icbap-17.2017.11
Farh, J L, C B Zhong, and D W Organ (2004). “Organizational citizenship behavior in the People’s Republic of China”. Organization Science 15(2), pp. 241–253. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1030.0051. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1030.0051
Firouzi, M, H Harati, and R Shahraki (2014). “Probing the effect of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on social capital (SC)”. International Journal of Advanced Research in Science and Technology 3(3), pp. 136–139.
Gnanarajan, A H, N Kengatharan, and T Velnampy (2020). “Exploring the prevalence of teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviour and its determinants: Evidence from an under-researched cultural milieu”. Qualitative Research in Education 9(1), pp. 95–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/qre.2020.4531. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17583/qre.2020.4531
Goess, D E and P A Smith (2018). “Crossing boundaries: Organizational citizenship behavior and protecting students from bullying”. Elementary School Journal 119(1), pp. 52–72. https://doi.org/10.1086/698606. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/698606
Gruenert, S (2008). They are not the same thing. https://www.naesp.org/sites/default/files/resources/2/Principal/2008/M-Ap56.pdf.
Hanson, J. L. (2017). Managing your mindset: Maximize your power of personal choice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hanson, J L, M Niqab, and A Bangert (2021). “Educational context of intellectual capital: An exploratory four-factor study”. In: vol. 1. Springer Nature, pp. 31–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1692-1_2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-1692-1_2
Hart, T A, J B Gilstrap, and M C Bolino (2016). “Organizational citizenship behavior and the enhancement of absorptive capacity”. Journal of Business Research 69(10), pp. 3981–3988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.06.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.06.001
Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American journal of sociology, 63(6), 597-606. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/222355
Islam, M.S., Akter, S., & Afroz, F. (2015). Factor Affecting Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Corporate Sector in Bangladesh. European Journal of Business and Management, 7, 7-17.
Jain, N R and I A Rizvi (2018). “Impact of corporate citizenship on organizational citizenship behaviour of managers: A study from selected Indian banks”. Global Business Review 20(6). https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0972150917749289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150917749289
Jayarathna, D Y (2019). “Impact of transformational leadership on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Mediating effect of psychological empowerment: A study on apparel sector Sri Lanka”. Journal of Business School 2(4), pp. 1–15. https:/www.doi.org/10.26677/TR1010.2019.103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26677/TR1010.2019.103
Kapoor, S et al. (2003). “The relationship of individualism-collectivism and self-construals to communication styles in India and the United States”. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 27(6), pp. 683–700. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2003.08.002
Karim, D N and A H A Majid (2017). “The effect of high performance HR practices on knowledge sharing behavior: the mediating role of employee engagement”. International Postgraduate Business Journal 9(2), pp. 74–88.
Katz, D (1964). “The motivational basis of organizational behavior”. Behavioral science 9(2), pp. 131–146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830090206
Kernodle, T A (2007). “Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior: A hierarchical linear modeling study”. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 68(3-A).
Kernodle, T A and D Noble (2013). “Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s importance in academics”. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE) 6(2), pp. 235–239. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1054332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19030/ajbe.v6i2.7688
Khalid, S A, H K Jusoff, et al. (2010). “Organizational citizenship behavior as a predictor of student academic achievement”. International Journal of Economics and Finance 2(1), pp. 65–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijef.v2n1p65
Khalid, S A, N Abdul Rahman, et al. (2021). “Lecturers’ organizational citizenship behaviours during COVID-19 Pandemic”. Asian Journal of University Education 17(2), pp. 215–226. https://doi.org/10.24191/ajue.v17i2.13401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24191/ajue.v17i2.13401
Khan, M A et al. (2020). “The interplay of leadership Styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior”. SAGE Open(1), pp. 10–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019898264
Kianfar, V et al. (2013). “Investigating structural relation of organizational trust, and organizational citizenship behavior to intellectual capital at state universities in the west of Iran”. International Journal of Learning and Development 3(4), pp. 114–122. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v9i2.14919. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v3i4.4248
Krimbill, E M, D E Goess, and P V Escobedo (2019). “Organizational citizenship and teacher evaluation: Using the T-TESS to promote OCB and improve student outcomes”. School Leadership Review 14(1). https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/slr/vol14/iss1/2.
Lee, K and N J Allen (2002). “Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions”. Journal of Applied Psychology 87, pp. 131–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.131. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.131
Lee, U H, H K Kim, and Y H Kim (2013). “Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior and its outcomes. Global Business and Management Research”. An International Journal 5(1), pp. 54–65.
Lee, Y H, B Woo, and Y Kim (2017). “Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating role of affective commitment”. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 13(3), pp. 373–382. http://www.doi.org/10.1177/1747954117725286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954117725286
Maharjan, S and University Grants Commission (2014). Factors affecting organizational citizenship behaviour. (Unpublished Mini Research). Nepal.
Malik, M E, M M Ghafoor, and H K Iqba (2012). “Leadership and personality traits as determinants of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in banking sector of Pakistan”. World Applied Sciences Journal(8), pp. 1152–1158.
Mallick, E et al. (2014). “Organizational citizenship behaviour, job performance and HR practices: A relational perspective”. Management and Labor Studies 39(4), pp. 449–460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0258042X15578023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0258042X15578023
Medina, M R (2021). “Authentic leadership: A study of the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior among research administrators at research universities”. Research Management Review 25(1), pp. 71–91.
Memon, M A et al. (2017). “The relationship between training satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour, and turnover intention”. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance 4(3), pp. 267–290. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/joepp-03-2017-0025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JOEPP-03-2017-0025
Muthuraman, S and M Al-Haziazi (2017). “Examining the factors of organizational citizenship behavior with reference to corporate sectors in Sultanate of Oman”. International Review of Management and Marketing 7(1), pp. 413–422.
Neves, P C et al. (2014). “Organizational citizenship behaviour in schools: Validation of a questionnaire”. The Spanish Journal of Psychology 17(17e), pp. 1–8. https://www.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2014.20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2014.20
Niqab, M et al. (2019). “Measuring organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in secondary schools in Pakistan and a comparison with factors of a school growth mindset culture”. International Journal of Learning and Development 9(2). https://www.doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v9i2.14919. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v9i2.14919
Ong, M et al. (2018). “When corporate social responsibility motivates employee citizenship behavior: The sensitising role of task significance”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 144, pp. 44–59. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2017.09.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2017.09.006
Oplatka, I (2009). “Organizational citizenship behaviour in teaching: The consequences for teachers, pupils, and the school”. International Journal of Educational Management 23(5), pp. 375–389. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/09513540910970476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540910970476
Oplatka, I and M Stundi (2011). “The components and determinants of preschool teacher organizational citizenship behaviour”. International Journal of Educational Management 25(3), pp. 223–236. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513541111120079. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513541111120079
Organ, D. W. (1988). “Organizational citizenship behaviour: The good soldier syndrome”. In: England, UK: Lexington Books.
Organ and K Ryan (1995). “A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior”. Personnel Psychology 48, pp. 775–802. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01781.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01781.x
Owor, J J (2016). “Human resource management practices, employee engagement and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in selected firms in Uganda”. African Journal of Business Management 10(1), pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM2015.7954. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM2015.7954
Polat, S (2009). “Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) display levels of the teachers at secondary schools according to the perceptions of the school administrators”.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 1(1), pp. 1591–1596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.280
Poohongthong, C, P Surat, and P Sutipan (2014). “A study on the relationships between ethical leadership, work-life balance, organizational socialisation, and organizational citizenship behaviour of teachers in Northern Thailand”. International Journal of Behavioral Science (IJBS) 9(2), pp. 17–28. https://doi.org/10.14456/ijbs.2014.2.
Popescu, A M and A Deaconu (2013). “High-school, organizational citizenship behaviour moderator”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 92, pp. 735–740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.747. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.747
Runhaar, P, J Konermann, and K Sanders (2013). “Teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviour: considering the roles of their work engagement, autonomy and leader–member exchange”. Teaching and Teacher Education 30, pp. 99–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.10.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.10.008
Schnake, M E and M P Dumler (2003). “Levels of measurement and analysis issues in organizational citizenship behaviour research”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 76(3), pp. 283–301. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647184
Schwartz, N, D Patota, and T Schwartz (2007). “Leveraging generational differences for productivity gains”. Journal of United States Academy of Business 11(2), pp. 3–3.
Schwartz, S H and L Sagiv (1995). “Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 26(1), pp. 92–116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022195261007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022195261007
Shaheen, M, R Gupta, and Y Kumar (2016). “Exploring dimensions of teachers’ OCB from stakeholder’s perspective: A study in India”. The Qualitative Report 21(6), pp. 1095–1117. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2016.2357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2016.2357
Sharma, J P, N Bajpai, and U Holani (2011). “Organizational citizenship behaviour in public and private sector and its impact on job satisfaction: A comparative study in Indian perspective”. International Journal of Business & Management 6(1), pp. 67–75. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v6n1p67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v6n1p67
Shrestha, M and D Subedi (2020). “Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Teachers of Nepal: Did Locale Contribute it’s in School Settings?” American Journal of Economics and Business Management 3(1), pp. 1–23. https://doi.org/10.31150/ajebm.Vol3.Iss1.92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31150/ajebm.v3i3.181
Smith, P A and W K Hoy (2004). “Teachers’ perceptions of student bullying: A conceptual and empirical analysis”. Journal of school Leadership 14(3), pp. 308–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268460401400304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/105268460401400304
Somech, A and A Drach-Zahavy (2000). “Understanding extra-role behaviour in schools: the relationships between job satisfactions, sense of efficacy, and teachers’ extra-role behaviour.” Teaching and Teacher Education 16(5), pp. 649–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00012-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00012-3
Somech, A and I Oplatka (2014). “Organizational citizenship behavior in schools: Examining the impact and opportunities within educational systems”. In: ed. by and others. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315866956
Somech, A and B E Ohayon (2020). “The trickle-down effect of OCB in schools: The link between leader OCB and team OCB”. Journal of Educational Administration 58(6), pp. 629–643. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEA-03-2019-0056. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JEA-03-2019-0056
Somech, Anit and Ifat Ron (2007). “Promoting organizational citizenship behaviour in schools: The impact of individual and organizational characteristics”. Educational Administration Quarterly 43(1), pp. 38–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X06291254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X06291254
Tamunomiebi, M D and G O Onah (2019). “Organizational citizenship behaviour: A critical review of its development in a diversity driven workplace. ” The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management 6(1), pp. 41–60.
Texas Education Agency (2016). Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System.
Tufail, M S, S Muneer, and M Manzoor (2017). How organizational rewards and organizational justice affect the organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior:Analysis of Pakistan service industries. http://www.cityuniversity.edu.pk/curj/Journals/Journal/special_aic_16/18.pdf.
Vigoda-Gadot, Eran (2000). “Internal Politics in Public Administration Systems: An Empirical Examination of Its Relationship with Job Congruence, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and In-Role Performance”. Public Personnel Management 29(2), pp. 185–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/009102600002900203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009102600002900203
Vigoda-Gadot, Eran and Itai Beeri (2011). “Change-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Public Administration: The Power of Leadership and the Cost of Organizational Politics”. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 22(3), pp. 573–596. https://doi.org/10.2307/23251265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur036
Walumbwa, F. O., & Schaubroeck, J. (2009). Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(12), 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015848. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015848
Werner, J M (2002). “Dimensions that make a difference: Examining the impact of in-role and extra-role behaviors on supervisory ratings”. Journal of Applied Psychology 79, pp. 98–107. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.1.98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.1.98
Whitney, J G, R A Greenwood, and E F Murphy (2009). “Generational differences in the workplace: Personal values, behaviors, and popular beliefs”. Journal of Diversity Management 4(3), pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.19030/jdm.v4i3.4959. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19030/jdm.v4i3.4959
Yi, Y, R Nataraajan, and T Gong (2011). “Customer participation and citizenship behavioral influences on employee performance, satisfaction, commitment, and turnover intention”. Journal of Business Research 64(1), pp. 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.12.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.12.007
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Niqab, Janet Lee Hanson, Tasleem Arif
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright: The Authors