Adoption of Blockchain Technology in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain to fight Counterfeit Medicine Market




Blockchain technology, pharmaceutical industry, counterfeit medicine markets, supply chain


Blockchain Technology (BT) is recognized as a technology with multiple applications in many industries due to the nature of its utilization. In the pharmaceutical industry, an effective supply chain is crucial to mitigate the counterfeit medicine market, which is currently a big challenge, especially for low or middle-income countries. This research investigates the possibility of implementing blockchain technology solutions in Pakistan’s pharmaceutical industry by introducing blockchain Application Software. The pharmaceutical industry and General Practitioners from hospitals and clinics were interviewed in the public and private sectors to understand this possibility. Data coding was conducted on the data gathered from the interviews, and from these codes, categories were extracted, these categories were then further refined to extract the final themes. Finally, the paper discusses that based on the need of the current situation, the proposed BT system would present a solution for making the pharmaceutical supply chain more transparent.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali, O., Jaradat, A., Kulakli, A., & Abuhalimeh, A. (2021). A Comparative Study: Blockchain Technology Utilization Benefits, Challenges and Functionalities. IEEE Access, 9, 12730–12749. DOI:

Arbaiza, C. S., Huerta, H. V., & Rodriguez, C. R. (2021). Contributions to the technological adoption model for the Peruvian agro-export sector. International Journal of EAdoption (IJEA), 13(1), 1–17. DOI:

Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: a survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2787–2805. DOI:

Bhardwaj, S., & Kaushik, M. (2018). Blockchain—Technology to Drive the Future. Smart Computing and Informatics, 263–271. DOI:

Bhutta, M. N. M., Khwaja, A. A., Nadeem, A., Ahmad, H. F., Khan, M. K., Hanif, M. A., & Cao, Y. (2021). A survey on blockchain technology: evolution, architecture and security. IEEE Access, 9, 61048–61073. DOI:

Blomfield, H., & Ghhogra, K. (2019). 3 ways blockchain will change the pharmaceutical supply chain. Retrieved from

Bocek, T., Rodrigues, B. B., Strasser, T., & Stiller, B. (2017). Blockchains everywhere -a use-case of blockchains in the pharma supply-chain. 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), 772–777. Lisbon, Portugal. DOI:

Brennan. (2017). Using Blockchain in Genomics. Retrieved from

Carboni, D. (2015). Feedback based reputation on top of the bitcoin blockchain.arXiv preprint arXiv:1502.01504.

Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2007). Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning, & Operation. (3rd ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Inc.

Choun, D. L., & Nasr, J. (2018). PhUSE US Connect 2018 Evaluating How Blockchain Can Transform The Pharmaceutical And Healthcare Industries PhUSE US Connect., 1–9. Retrieved from

Devine, P. (2015). Blockchain learning: can crypto-currency methods be appropriated to enhance online learning? ALT Online Winter Conference. Retrieved from

Duan, J. (2018). Blockchain in Global Trade . Springer International Publishing, 2. DOI:

Elmuti, D., Khoury, G., Omran, O., & Abou-Zaid, A. (2013). Challenges and Opportunities of Health Care Supply Chain Management in the United States. Health Marketing Quarterly, 30(2), 128–143. DOI:

Gogerty, N., & Zitoli, J. (2011). DeKo: An Electricity-Backed Currency Proposal. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI:

Guest, G., & Bunce, A. J. L. (2006). How many interviews are enough?: an experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59–82. DOI:

Haq, I., & Esuka, O. M. (2018). Blockchain Technology in Pharmaceutical Industry to Prevent Counterfeit Drugs . International Journal of Computer Applications, 180(25), 8–12. DOI:

Hardjono, T., & Smith, N. (2016). Cloud-based commissioning of constrained devices using permission blockchains. Proceedings of the 2nd ACMInternationalWorkshop on IoT Privacy, 29–36. DOI:

Irvine, A., Drew, P., & Drew, P. S. R. (2013). Am I not answering your questions properly? Clarification, adequacy, and responsiveness in semi-structured telephone and face-toface interviews. Qual Res, 13(1), 87–106. DOI:

Javaid, M., Haleem, A., Singh, R. P., Khan, S., & Suman, R. (2021). Blockchain technology applications for Industry 4.0: A literature-based review. Blockchain: Research and Applications. DOI:

Khan, I. (2016). What is Blockchain Technology? A Step-by-Step Guide For Beginners. Retrieved from

Lewis, T., Synowiec, C., Lagomarsino, G., & J, S. (2012). E-health in low-and middle-income countries: findings from the center for health market innovations. Bull World Health Organ, 90(5), 32–40. DOI:

Lim, M. K., Li, Y., Wang, C., & Tseng, M. L. (2021). A literature review of blockchain technology applications in supply chains: A comprehensive analysis of themes, methodologies and industries. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 154. DOI:

Mackey, T. K., Liang, B. A., York, P., & Kubic, T. (2015). Counterfeit drug penetration into global legitimate medicine supply chains: a global assessment. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92(6 Suppl), 59–67. DOI:

Miorandi, D., Sicari, S., Pellegrini, F. D., & Chlamtac, I. (2012). Internet of things: vision, applications and research challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 10(7), 1497–1516. DOI:

Nakamoto, S. (2014). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Namecoin. Retrieved from

Noyes, C. (2016). Bitar: Fast Anti-Malware by Distributed Blockchain Consensus and Feedforward Scanning. arXiv.

Parlikar, M. (2015). Hyperledger Project: Hyperledger In-Depth with CasperLabs. Retrieved from

Peters, G. W., & Panayi, E. (2015). Understanding modern banking ledgers through blockchain technologies: Future of transaction processing and smart contracts on the internet of money. Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from DOI:

Pilkington, M. (2016). Does the Fintech Industry need a New Risk Management Philosophy? Social Science Research Network: A Blockchain Typology for Digital Currencies and e-money Services in Luxembourg. DOI:

Sharma, E., & Ahmad, J. (2022). Technology adoption model for HRM practices. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 14(1), 101–124. DOI:

Sharples, M., & Domingue, J. (2015). The blockchain and kudos: A distributed system for the educational record. (pp. 490–496). Lyon, France: Proceedings of 11th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2015). DOI:

Skare, M., & Soriano, D. R. (2021). How globalization is changing digital technology adoption: An international perspective. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 6(4), 222–233. DOI:

Tan, B., Yan, J., Chen, S., & Liu, X. (2018). The Impact of Blockchain on Food Supply Chain: The Case of Walmart. (Vol. 2). Springer International Publishing. DOI:

Togawa, Y. (2015). Nomure Research Institute: Survey on Blockchain Technologies and Related Services. Retrieved from

Tseng, M. L. (2010). An assessment of cause and effect decision making model for firm environmental knowledge management capacities in uncertainty . Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 161, 549–564. DOI:

Vorabutra, J. A. (2016). Why Blockchain is a Game Changer for Supply Chain Management Transparency. Supply Chain 24/7. Retrieved from

Yiannas, F. (2018). A new era of food transparency powered by blockchain. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 12(1-2), 46–56. DOI:

Zheng, Z., Xie, S., & Dai, H. (2018). Blockchain challenges and opportunities : a survey Blockchain challenges and opportunities : a survey (Z. Zheng & S. X. H. -. N. D. X. C. H. Wang, Eds.). DOI:

Zyskind, G., & Nathan, O. (2015). Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data. Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW)IEEE. IEEE, 180–180. DOI:



How to Cite

Zulfiqar, S., Lakho, A., Nizam, K., & Fayyaz, B. (2022). Adoption of Blockchain Technology in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain to fight Counterfeit Medicine Market. JISR Management and Social Sciences & Economics, 20(2), 111–130.



Original Articles